# Problems and Solutions to Accompany Chang’s Physical Chemistry for the Chemical & Biological Sciences

This Solutions Manual to accompany Raymond Chang's Physical Chemistry for the Chemical and Biological Sciences restates each of the 1020 innovative chapter-ending problems in the text, followed by a detailed solution.

### Summary

This Solutions Manual to accompany Raymond Chang’s Physical Chemistry for the Chemical and Biological Sciences restates each of the 1020 innovative chapter-ending problems in the text, followed by a detailed solution. Each solution is approached with the same conversational style that the authors use in their own classrooms as they try to “teach” solutions to the problems rather than simply giving out answers. One hundred forty-three figures and diagrams are used to illustrate the solutions. Both authors are recent recipients of the Henry Dreyfus Teacher-Scholar award and bring to the manual effective pedagogy as well as the vitality of modern physical chemistry.

### Table of Contents

Preface

Chapter 2: The Gas Laws

Chapter 3: Kinetic Theory of Gases

Chapter 4: The First Law of Thermodynamics

Chapter 5: The Second Law of Thermodynamics

Chapter 6: Gibbs and Helmholtz Energies and Their Applications

Chapter 7: Nonelectrolyte Solutions

Chapter 8: Electrolyte Solutions

Chapter 9: Chemical Equilibrium

Chapter 10: Electrochemistry

Chapter 11: Acids and Bases

Chapter 12: Chemical Kinetics

Chapter 13: Enzyme Kinetics

Chapter 14: Quantum Mechanics and Atomic Structure

Chapter 15: The Chemical Bond

Chapter 16: Intermolecular Forces

Chapter 17: Spectroscopy

Chapter 18: Molecular Symmetry and Optical Activity

Chapter 19: Photochemistry and Photobiology

Chapter 20: The Solid State

Chapter 21: The Liquid State

Chapter 22: Macromolecules

Chapter 23: Statistical Thermodynamics

**Sample Problem**

It has been said that every breath we take, on average, contains molecules that were once exhaled by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791). The following calculations demonstrate the validity of this statement. (a) Calculate the total number of molecules in the atmosphere. (b) Assuming the volume of every breath is 500 mL, calculate the number of molecules exhaled in each breath at 37°C, which is the body temperature. (c) If Mozart’s life span was exactly 35 years, what is the number of molecules he exhaled in that period? (Given that the average person breathes 12 times per minute). (d) Calculate the fraction of molecules in the atmosphere that were breathed out by Mozart. How many of Mozart’s molecules do we inhale with every breath of air? Round off your answer to one significant figure (e) List three important assumptions in these calculations.