# Physical Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

As the first modern physical chemistry textbook to cover quantum mechanics before thermodynamics and kinetics, this book provides a contemporary approach to the study of physical chemistry. By beginning with quantum chemistry, students will learn the fundamental principles upon which all modern physical chemistry is built.

### Summary

As the first modern physical chemistry textbook to cover quantum mechanics before thermodynamics and kinetics, this book provides a contemporary approach to the study of physical chemistry. By beginning with quantum chemistry, students will learn the fundamental principles upon which all modern physical chemistry is built. The text includes a special set of “MathChapters” to review and summarize the mathematical tools required to master the material Thermodynamics is simultaneously taught from a bulk and microscopic viewpoint that enables the student to understand how bulk properties of materials are related to the properties of individual constituent molecules. This new text includes a variety of modern research topics in physical chemistry as well as hundreds of worked problems and examples.

Translated into French, Italian, Japanese, Spanish and Polish.

### Table of Contents

**Chapter 1. The Dawn of the Quantum Theory***1-1.*Blackbody Radiation Could Not Be Explained by Classical Physics*1-2.*Planck Used a Quantum Hypothesis to Derive the Blackbody Radiation Law*1-3.*Einstein Explained the Photoelectric Effect with a Quantum Hypothesis*1-4.*The Hydrogen Atomic Spectrum Consists of Several Series of Lines*1-5.*The Rydberg Formula Accounts for All the Lines in the Hydrogen Atomic Spectrum*1-6.*Louis de Broglie Postulated That Matter Has Wavelike Properties*1-7.*de Broglie Waves Are Observed Experimentally*1-8.*The Bohr Theory of the Hydrogen Atom Can Be Used to Derive the Rydberg Formula*1-9.*The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle States That the Position and the Momentum of a Particle Cannot be Specified Simultaneously with Unlimited Precision- Problems
**MathChapter A / Complex Numbers**

**Chapter 2. The Classical Wave Equation***2-1.*The One-Dimensional Wave Equation Describes the Motion of a Vibrating String*2-2.*The Wave Equation Can Be Solved by the Method of Separation of Variables*2-3.*Some Differential Equations Have Oscillatory Solutions*2-4.*The General Solution to the Wave Equation Is a Superposition of Normal Modes*2-5.*A Vibrating Membrane Is Described by a Two- Dimensional Wave Equation- Problems
**MathChapter B / Probability and Statistics**

**Chapter 3. The Schrodinger Equation and a Particle In a Box***3-1.*The Schrodinger Equation Is the Equation for Finding the Wave Function of a Particle*3-2.*Classical-Mechanical Quantities Are Represented by Linear Operators in Quantum Mechanics*3-3.*The Schrodinger Equation Can be Formulated as an Eigenvalue Problem*3-4.*Wave Functions Have a Probabilistic Interpretation*3-5.*The Energy of a Particle in a Box Is Quantized*3-6.*Wave Functions Must Be Normalized*3-7.*The Average Momentum of a Particle in a Box is Zero*3-8.*The Uncertainty Principle Says That sigma_{p}sigma_{x}*>h*/2*3-9.*The Problem of a Particle in a Three-Dimensional Box is a Simple Extension of the One-Dimensional Case- Problems
**MathChapter C / Vectors**

**Chapter 4. Some Postulates and General Principles of Quantum Mechanics***4-1.*The State of a System Is Completely Specified by its Wave Function*4-2.*Quantum-Mechanical Operators Represent Classical-Mechanical Variables*4-3.*Observable Quantities Must Be Eigenvalues of Quantum Mechanical Operators*4-4.*The Time Dependence of Wave Functions Is Governed by the Time-Dependent Schrodinger Equation*4-5.*The Eigenfunctions of Quantum Mechanical Operators Are Orthogonal*4-6.*The Physical Quantities Corresponding to Operators That Commute Can Be Measured Simultaneously to Any Precision- Problems
**MathChapter D / Spherical Coordinates**

**Chapter 5. The Harmonic Oscillator and the Rigid Rotator : Two Spectroscopic Models***5-1.*A Harmonic Oscillator Obeys Hooke’s Law*5-2.*The Equation for a Harmonic-Oscillator Model of a Diatomic Molecule Contains the Reduced Mass of the Molecule*5-3.*The Harmonic-Oscillator Approximation Results from the Expansion of an Internuclear Potential Around its Minimum*5-4.*The Energy Levels of a Quantum-Mechanical Harmonic Oscillator Are*E*_{v }=*hw*(*v*+ 1/2) with*v*= 0,1,2…*5-5.*The Harmonic Oscillator Accounts for the Infrared Spectrum of a Diatomic Molecule*5-6.*The Harmonic-Oscillator Wave Functions Involve Hermite Polynomials*5-7.*Hermite Polynomials Are Either Even or Odd Functions*5-8.*The Energy Levels of a Rigid Rotator Are*E = h<fontsize=2></fontsize=2>*^{2}*J(J+1)/2I**5-9.*The Rigid Rotator Is a Model for a Rotating Diatomic Molecule- Problems

**Chapter 6. The Hydrogen Atom***6-1.*The Schrodinger Equation for the Hydrogen Atom Can Be Solved Exactly*6-2.*The Wave Functions of a Rigid Rotator Are Called Spherical Harmonics*6-3.*The Precise Values of the Three Components of Angular Momentum Cannot Be Measured Simultaneously*6-4.*Hydrogen Atomic Orbitals Depend upon Three Quantum Numbers*6-5. s*Orbitals Are Spherically Symmetric*6-6.*There Are Three*p*Orbitals for Each Value of the Principle Quantum Number,*n*>= 2*6-7.*The Schrodinger Equation for the Helium Atom Cannot Be Solved Exactly- Problems
**MathChapter E / Determinants**

**Chapter 7. Approximation Methods***7-1.*The Variational Method Provides an Upper Bound to the Ground-State Energy of a System*7-2.*A Trial Function That Depends Linearly on the Variational Parameters Leads to a Secular Determinant*7-3.*Trial Functions Can Be Linear Combinations of Functions That Also Contain Variational Parameters*7-4.*Perturbation Theory Expresses the Solution to One Problem in Terms of Another Problem Solved Previously- Problems

**Chapter 8. Multielectron Atoms***8-1.*Atomic and Molecular Calculations Are Expressed in Atomic Units*8-2.*Both Pertubation Theory and the Variational Method Can Yield Excellent Results for Helium*8-3.*Hartree-Fock Equations Are Solved by the Self-Consistent Field Method*8-4.*An Electron Has An Intrinsic Spin Angular Momentum*8-5.*Wave Functions Must Be Antisymmetric in the Interchange of Any Two Electrons*8-6.*Antisymmetric Wave Functions Can Be Represented by Slater Determinants*8-7.*Hartree-Fock Calculations Give Good Agreement with Experimental Data*8-8.*A Term Symbol Gives a Detailed Description of an Electron Configuration*8-9.*The Allowed Values of*J*are*L+S, L+S-1, …..,*|*L-S*|*8-10.*Hund’s Rules Are Used to Determine the Term Symbol of the Ground Electronic State*8-11.*Atomic Term Symbols Are Used to Describe Atomic Spectra- Problems

**Chapter 9. The Chemical Bond : Diatomic Molecules***9-1.*The Born-Oppenheimer Approximation Simplifies the Schrodinger Equation for Molecules*9-2.*H_{2}^{+}Is the Prototypical Species of Molecular-Orbital Theory*9-3.*The Overlap Integral Is a Quantitative Measure of the Overlap of Atomic Orbitals Situated on Different Atoms*9-4.*The Stability of a Chemical Bond Is a Quantum-Mechanical Effect*9-5.*The Simplest Molecular Orbital Treatment of H_{2}^{+}Yields a Bonding Orbital and an Antibonding Orbital*9-6.*A Simple Molecular-Orbital Treatment of H_{2}Places Both Electrons in a Bonding Orbital*9-7.*Molecular Orbitals Can Be Ordered According to Their Energies*9-8.*Molecular-Orbital Theory Predicts that a Stable Diatomic Helium Molecule Does Not Exist*9-9.*Electrons Are Placed into Moleular Orbitals in Accord with the Pauli Exclusion Principle*9-10.*Molecular-Orbital Theory Correctly Predicts that Oxygen Molecules Are Paramagnetic*9-11.*Photoelectron Spectra Support the Existence of Molecular Orbitals*9-12.*Molecular-Orbital Theory Also Applies to Heteronuclear Diatomic Molecules*9-13.*An SCF-LCAO-MO Wave Function Is a Molecular Orbital Formed from a Linear Combination of Atomic Orbitals and Whose Coefficients Are Determined Self-Consistently*9-14.*Electronic States of Molecules Are Designated by Molecular Term Symbols*9-15.*Molecular Term Symbols Designate the Symmetry Properties of Molecular Wave Functions*9-16.*Most Molecules Have Excited Electronic States- Problems

**Chapter 10. Bonding in Polyatomic Molecules***10-1.*Hybrid Orbitals Account for Molecular Shape*10-2.*Different Hybrid Orbitals Are Used for the Bonding Electrons and the Lone Pair Electrons in Water*10-3.*Why is BeH_{2}Linear and H_{2}O Bent?*10-4.*Photoelectron Spectroscopy Can Be Used to Study Molecular Orbitals*10-5.*Conjugated Hydrocarbons and Aromatic Hydrocarbons Can Be Treated by a Pi-Electron Approximation*10-6.*Butadiene is Stabilized by a Delocalization Energy- Problems

**Chapter 11. Computational Quantum Chemistry***11-1.*Gaussian Basis Sets Are Often Used in Modern Computational Chemistry*11-2.*Extended Basis Sets Account Accurately for the Size and Shape of Molecular Charge Distributions*11-3.*Asterisks in the Designation of a Basis Set Denote Orbital Polarization Terms*11-4.*The Ground-State Energy of H_{2}can be Calculated Essentially Exactly*11-5.*Gaussian 94 Calculations Provide Accurate Information About Molecules- Problems
**MathChapter F / Matrices**

**Chapter 12. Group Theory : The Exploitation of Symmetry***12-1.*The Exploitation of the Symmetry of a Molecule Can Be Used to Significantly Simplify Numerical Calculations*12-2.*The Symmetry of Molecules Can Be Described by a Set of Symmetry Elements*12-3.*The Symmetry Operations of a Molecule Form a Group*12-4.*Symmetry Operations Can Be Represented by Matrices*12-5.*The C_{3V}Point Group Has a Two-Dimenstional Irreducible Representation*12-6.*The Most Important Summary of the Properties of a Point Group Is Its Character Table*12-7.*Several Mathematical Relations Involve the Characters of Irreducible Representations*12-8.*We Use Symmetry Arguments to Prediect Which Elements in a Secular Determinant Equal Zero*12-9.*Generating Operators Are Used to Find Linear Combinations of Atomic Orbitals That Are Bases for Irreducible Representations- Problems

**Chapter 13. Molecular Spectroscopy***13-1.*Different Regions of the Electromagnetic Spectrum Are Used to Investigate Different Molecular Processes*13-2.*Rotational Transitions Accompany Vibrational Transitions*13-3.*Vibration-Rotation Interaction Accounts for the Unequal Spacing of the Lines in the P and R Branches of a Vibration-Rotation Spectrum*13-4.*The Lines in a Pure Rotational Spectrum Are Not Equally Spaced*13-5.*Overtones Are Observed in Vibrational Spectra*13-6.*Electronic Spectra Contain Electronic, Vibrational, and Rotational Information*13-7.*The Franck-Condon Principle Predicts the Relative Intensities of Vibronic Transitions*13-8.*The Rotational Spectrum of a Polyatomic Molecule Depends Upon the Principal Moments of Inertia of the Molecule*13-9.*The Vibrations of Polyatomic Molecules Are Represented by Normal Coordinates*13-10.*Normal Coordinates Belong to Irreducible Representation of Molecular Point Groups*13-11.*Selection Rules Are Derived from Time-Dependent Perturbation Theory*13-12.*The Selection Rule in the Rigid Rotator Approximation Is Delta*J*= (plus or minus) 1*13-13.*The Harmonic-Oscillator Selection Rule Is Delta*v*= (plus or minus) 1*13-14.*Group Theory Is Used to Determine the Infrared Activity of Normal Coordinate Vibrations- Problems

**Chapter 14. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy***14-1.*Nuclei Have Intrinsic Spin Angular Momenta*14-2.*Magnetic Moments Interact with Magnetic Fields*14-3.*Proton NMR Spectrometers Operate at Frequencies Between 60 MHz and 750 MHz*14-4.*The Magnetic Field Acting upon Nuclei in Molecules Is Shielded*14-5.*Chemical Shifts Depend upon the Chemical Environment of the Nucleus*14-6.*Spin-Spin Coupling Can Lead to Multiplets in NMR Spectra*14-7.*Spin-Spin Coupling Between Chemically Equivalent Protons Is Not Observed*14-8.*The*n*+1 Rule Applies Only to First-Order Spectra*14-9.*Second-Order Spectra Can Be Calculated Exactly Using the Variational Method- Problems

**Chapter 15. Lasers, Laser Spectroscopy, and Photochemistry***15-1.*Electronically Excited Molecules Can Relax by a Number of Processes*15-2.*The Dynamics of Spectroscopic Transitions Between the Electronic States of Atoms Can Be Modeled by Rate Equations*15-3.*A Two-Level System Cannot Achieve a Population Inversion*15-4.*Population Inversion Can Be Achieved in a Three-Level System*15-5.*What is Inside a Laser?*15-6.*The Helium-Neon Laser is an Electrical-Discharge Pumped, Continuous-Wave, Gas-Phase Laser*15-7.*High-Resolution Laser Spectroscopy Can Resolve Absorption Lines that Cannot be Distinguished by Conventional Spectrometers*15-8.*Pulsed Lasers Can by Used to Measure the Dynamics of Photochemical Processes- Problems
**MathChapter G / Numerical Methods**

**Chapter 16. The Properties of Gases***16-1.*All Gases Behave Ideally If They Are Sufficiently Dilute*16-2.*The van der Waals Equation and the Redlich-Kwong Equation Are Examples of Two-Parameter Equations of State*16-3.*A Cubic Equation of State Can Describe Both the Gaseous and Liquid States*16-4.*The van der Waals Equation and the Redlich-Kwong Equation Obey the Law of Corresponding States*16-5.*The Second Virial Coefficient Can Be Used to Determine Intermolecular Potentials*16-6.*London Dispersion Forces Are Often the Largest Contributer to the r^{-6}Term in the Lennard-Jones Potential*16-7.*The van der Waals Constants Can Be Written in Terms of Molecular Parameters- Problems

**Chapter 17. The Boltzmann Factor And Partition Functions***17-1.*The Boltzmann Factor Is One of the Most Important Quantities in the Physical Sciences*17-2.*The Probability That a System in an Ensemble Is in the State*j*with Energy*E*_{j}*(N,V)*Is Proportional to*e*^{-Ej(N,V)/k}_{B}^{T}*17-3.*We Postulate That the Average Ensemble Energy Is Equal to the Observed Energy of a System*17-4.*The Heat Capacity at Constant Volume Is the Temperature Derivative of the Average Energy*17-5.*We Can Express the Pressure in Terms of a Partition Function*17-6.*The Partition Function of a System of Independent, Distinguishable Molecules Is the Product of Molecular Partition Functions*17-7.*The Partition Function of a System of Independent, Indistinguishable Atoms or Molecules Can Usually Be Written as [q(V,T)]^{N}/N!*17-8.*A Molecular Partition Function Can Be Decomposed into Partition Functions for Each Degree of Freedom- Problems
**MathChapter I / Series and Limits**

**Chapter 18. Partition Functions And Ideal Gases***18-1.*The Translational Partition Function of a Monatomic Ideal Gas is (2pi*mk*_{B}T /h^{2})^{3/2}V*18-2.*Most Atoms Are in the Ground Electronic State at Room Temperature*18-3.*The Energy of a Diatomic Molecule Can Be Approximated as a Sum of Separate Terms*18-4.*Most Molecules Are in the Ground Vibrational State at Room Temperature*18-5.*Most Molecules Are in Excited Rotational States at Ordinary Temperatures*18-6.*Rotational Partition Functions Contain a Symmetry Number*18-7.*The Vibrational Partition Function of a Polyatomic Molecule Is a Product of Harmonic Oscillator Partition Functions for Each Normal Coordinate*18-8.*The Form of the Rotational Partition Function of a Polyatomic Molecule Depends Upon the Shape of the Molecule*18-9.*Calculated Molar Heat Capacities Are in Very Good Agreement with Experimental Data- Problems

**Chapter 19. The First Law of Thermodynamics***19-1.*A Common Type of Work is Pressure-Volume Work*19-2.*Work and Heat Are Not State Functions, but Energy is a State Function*19-3.*The First Law of Thermodynamics Says the Energy Is a State Function*19-4.*An Adiabatic Process Is a Process in Which No Energy as Heat Is Transferred*19-5.*The Temperature of a Gas Decreases in a Reversible Adiabatic Expansion*19-6.*Work and Heat Have a Simple Molecular Interpretation*19-7.*The Enthalpy Change Is Equal to the Energy Transferred as Heat in a Constant-Pressure Process Involving Only P-V Work*19-8.*Heat Capacity Is a Path Function*19-9.*Relative Enthalpies Can Be Determined from Heat Capacity Data and Heats of Transition*19-10.*Enthalpy Changes for Chemical Equations Are Additive*19-11.*Heats of Reactions Can Be Calculated from Tabulated Heats of Formation*19-12.*The Temperature Dependence of delta_{r}H is Given in Terms of the Heat Capacities of the Reactants and Products- Problems
**MathChapter J / The Binomial Distribution and Stirling’s Approximation**

**Chapter 20. Entropy and The Second Law of Thermodynamics***20-1.*The Change of Energy Alone Is Not Sufficient to Determine the Direction of a Spontaneous Process*20-2.*Nonequilibrium Isolated Systems Evolve in a Direction That Increases Their Disorder*20-3.*Unlike q_{rev}, Entropy Is a State Function*20-4.*The Second Law of Thermodynamics States That the Entropy of an Isolated System Increases as a Result of a Spontaneous Process*20-5.*The Most Famous Equation of Statistical Thermodynamics is S = k_{B}_{ }ln W*20-6.*We Must Always Devise a Reversible Process to Calculate Entropy Changes*20-7.*Thermodynamics Gives Us Insight into the Conversion of Heat into Work*20-8.*Entropy Can Be Expressed in Terms of a Partition Function*20-9.*The Molecular Formula*S = k*_{B}in*W*is Analogous to the Thermodynamic Formula*dS*= delta*q*_{rev}/*T*- Problems

**Chapter 21. Entropy And The Third Law of Thermodynamics***21-1.*Entropy Increases With Increasing Temperature*21-2.*The Third Law of Thermodynamics Says That the Entropy of a Perfect Crystal is Zero at 0 K*21-3.*delta_{trs}S = delta_{trs}H / T_{trs}at a Phase Transition*21-4.*The Third Law of Thermodynamics Asserts That C_{P}-> 0 as T -> 0*21-5.*Practical Absolute Entropies Can Be Determined Calorimetrically*21-6.*Practical Absolute Entropies of Gases Can Be Calculated from Partition Functions*21-7.*The Values of Standard Entropies Depend Upon Molecular Mass and Molecular Structure*21-8.*The Spectroscopic Entropies of a Few Substances Do Not Agree with the Calorimetric Entropies*21-9.*Standard Entropies Can Be Used to Calculate Entropy Changes of Chemical Reactions- Problems

**Chapter 22. Helmholtz and Gibbs Energies***22-1.*The Sign of the Helmholtz Energy Change Determines the Direction of a Spontaneous Process in a System at Constant Volume and Temperature*22-2.*The Gibbs Energy Determines the Direction of a Spontaneous Process for a System at Constant Pressure and Temperature*22-3.*Maxwell Relations Provide Several Useful Thermodynamic Formulas*22-4.*The Enthalpy of an Ideal Gas Is Independent of Pressure*22-5.*The Various Thermodynamic Functions Have Natural Independent Variables*22-6.*The Standard State for a Gas at Any Temperature Is the Hypothetical Ideal Gas at One Bar*22-7.*The Gibbs-Helmholtz Equation Describes the Temperature Dependance of the Gibbs Energy*22-8.*Fugacity Is a Measure of the Nonideality of a Gas- Problems

**Chapter 23. Phase Equilibria***23-1.*A Phase Diagram Summarizes the Solid-Liquid-Gas Behavior of a Substance*23-2.*The Gibbs Energy of a Substance Has a Close Connection to Its Phase Diagram*23-3.*The Chemical Potentials of a Pure Substance in Two Phases in Equilibrium Are Equal*23-4.*The Clausius-Clapeyron Equation Gives the Vapor Pressure of a Substance As a Function of Temperature*23-5.*Chemical Potential Can be Evaluated From a Partition Function- Problems

**Chapter 24. Solutions I: Liquid-Liquid Solutions***24-1.*Partial Molar Quantities Are Important Thermodynamic Properites of Solutions*24-2.*The Gibbs-Duhem Equation Relates the Change in the Chemical Potential of One Component of a Solution to the Change in the Chemical Potential of the Other*24-3.*The Chemical Potential of Each Component Has the Same Value in Each Phase in Which the Component Appears*24-4.*The Components of an Ideal Solution Obey Raoult’s Law for All Concentrations*24-5.*Most Solutions are Not Ideal*24-6.*The Gibbs-Duhem Equation Relats the Vapor Pressures of the Two Components of a Volatile Binary Solution*24-7.*The Central Thermodynamic Quantity for Nonideal Solutions is the Activity*24-8.*Activities Must Be Calculated with Respect to Standard States*24-9.*We Can Calculate the Gibbs Energy of Mixing of Binary Solutions in Terms of the Activity Coefficient- Problems

**Chapter 25. Solutions II: Solid-Liquid Solutions***25-1.*We Use a Raoult’s Law Standard State for the Solvent and a Henry’s Law Standard State for the Solute for Solutionsof Solids Dissolved in Liquids*25-2.*The Activity of a Nonvolatile Solute Can Be Obtained from the Vapor Pressure of the Solvent*25-3.**25-4.*Osmotic Pressure Can Be Used to Determine the Molecular Masses of Polymers*25-5.*Solutions of Electrolytes Are Nonideal at Relatively Low Concentrations*25-6.*The Debye-Hukel Theory Gives an Exact Expression of 1n gamma(plus or minus) For Very Dilute Solutions*25-7.*The Mean Spherical Approximation Is an Extension of the Debye-Huckel Theory to Higher Concentrations- Problems

**Chapter 26. Chemical Equilibrium***26-1.*Chemical Equilibrium Results When the Gibbs Energy Is a Minimun with Respect to the Extent of Reaction*26-2.*An Equilibrium Constant Is a Function of Temperature Only*26-3.*Standard Gibbs Energies of Formation Can Be Used to Calculate Equilibrium Constants*26-4.*A Plot of the Gibbs Energy of a Reaction Mixture Against the Extent of Reaction Is a Minimum at Equilibrium*26-5.*The Ratio of the Reaction Quotient to the Equilibrium Constant Determines the Direction in Which a Reaction Will Proceed*26-6.*The Sign of delta_{r}G And Not That of delta_{r }G^{o}Determines the Direction of Reaction Spontaneity*26-7.*The Variation of an Equilibrium Constant with Temperature Is Given by the Van’t Hoff Equation*26-8.*We Can Calculate Equilibrium Constants in Terms of Partition Functions*26-9.*Molecular Partition Functions and Related Thermodynamic Data Are Extensively Tabulated*26-10.*Equilibrium Constants for Real Gases Are Expressed in Terms of Partial Fugacities*26-11.*Thermodynamic Equilibrium Constants Are Expressed in Terms of Activities*26-12.*The Use of Activities Makes a Significant Difference in Solubility Calculations Involving Ionic Species- Problems

**Chapter 27. The Kinetic Theory of Gases***27-1.*The Average Translational Kinetic Energy of the Molecules in a Gas Is Directly Proportional to the Kelvin Temperature*27-2.*The Distribution of the Components of Molecular Speeds Are Described by a Gaussian Distribution*27-3.*The Distribution of Molecular Speeds Is Given by the Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution*27-4.*The Frequency of Collisions that a Gas Makes with a Wall Is Proportional to its Number Density and to the Average Molecular Speed*27-5.*The Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution Has Been Verified Experimentally*27-6.*The Mean Free Path Is the Average Distance a Molecule Travels Between Collisions*27-7.*The Rate of a Gas-Phase Chemical Reaction Depends Upon the Rate of Collisions in Which the Relative Kinetic Energy Exceeds Some Critical Value- Problems

**Chapter 28. Chemical Kinetics I : Rate Laws***28-1.*The Time Dependence of a Chemical Reaction Is Described by a Rate Law*28-2.*Rate Laws Must Be Determined Experimentally*28-3.*First-Order Reactions Show an Exponential Decay of Reactant Concentration with Time*28-4.*The Rate Laws for Different Reaction Orders Predict Different Behaviors for the Time-Dependent Reactant Concentration*28-5.*Reactions Can Also Be Reversible*28-6.*The Rate Constants of a Reversible Reaction Can Be Determined Using Relaxation Techniques*28-7.*Rate Constants Are Usually Strongly Temperature Dependent*28-8.*Transition-State Theory Can Be Used to Estimate Reaction Rate Constants- Problems

**Chapter 29. Chemical Kinetics II : Reaction Mechanisms***29-1.*A Mechanism is a Sequence of Single-Step Chemical Reactions called Elementary Reactions*29-2.*The Principle of Detailed Balance States that when a Complex Reaction is at Equilibrium, the Rate of the Forward Process is Equal to the Rate of the Reverse Process for Each and Every Step of the Reaction Mechanism*29-3.*When Are Consecutive and Single-Step Reactions Distinguishable?*29-4.*The Steady-State Approximation Simplifies Rate Expressions yy Assuming that d[I]/dt=0, where I is a Reaction Intermediate*29-5.*The Rate Law for a Complex Reaction Does Not Imply a Unique Mechanism*29-6.*The Lindemann Mechanism Explains How Unimolecular Reactions Occur*29-7.*Some Reaction Mechanisms Involve Chain Reactions*29-8.*A Catalyst Affects the Mechanism and Activation Energy of a Chemical Reaction*29-9.*The Michaelis-Menten Mechanism Is a Reaction Mechanism for Enzyme Catalysis- Problems

**Chapter 30. Gas-Phase Reaction Dynamics***30-1.*The Rate of Bimolecular Gas-Phase Reaction Can Be Calculated Using Hard-Sphere Collision Theory and an Energy-Dependent Reaction Cross Section*30-2.*A Reaction Cross Section Depends Upon the Impact Parameter*30-3.*The Rate Constant for a Gas-Phase Chemical Reaction May Depend on the Orientations of the Colliding Molecules*30-4.*The Internal Energy of the Reactants Can Affect the Cross Section of a Reaction*30-5.*A Reactive Collision Can Be Described in a Center-of-Mass Coordinate System*30-6.*Reactive Collisions Can be Studied Using Crossed Molecular Beam Machines*30-7.*The Reaction F(g) +D_{2 }(g) => DF(g) + D(g) Can Produce Vibrationally Excited DF(g) Molecules*30-8.*The Velocity and Angular Distribution of the Products of a Reactive Collision Provide a Molecular Picture of the Chemical Reaction*30-9.*Not All Gas-Phase Chemical Reactions Are Rebound Reactions*30-10.*The Potential-Energy Surface for the Reaction F(g) + D_{2}(g) => DF(g) + D(g) Can Be Calculated Using Quantum Mechanics- Problems

**Chapter 31. Solids and Surface Chemistry***31-1.*The Unit Cell Is the Fundamental Building Block of a Crystal*31-2.*The Orientation of a Lattice Plane Is Described by its Miller Indices*31-3.*The Spacing Between Lattice Planes Can Be Determined from X-Ray Diffraction Measurements*31-4.*The Total Scattering Intensity Is Related to the Periodic Structure of the Electron Density in the Crystal*31-5.*The Structure Factor and the Electron Density Are Related by a Fourier Transform*31-6.*A Gas Molecule Can Physisorb or Chemisorb to a Solid Surface*31-7.*Isotherms Are Plots of Surface Coverage as a Function of Gas Pressure at Constant Temperature*31-8.*The Langmuir Isotherm Can Be Used to Derive Rate Laws for Surface-Catalyzed Gas-Phase Reactions*31-9.*The Structure of a Surface is Different from that of a Bulk Solid*31-10.*The Reaction Between H_{2}(g) and N_{2}(g) to Make NH_{3 }(g) Can Be Surface Catalyzed- Problems

**Answers to the Numerical Problems****lllustration Credits****Index**

### Reviews

*“McQuarrie and Simon have developed an excellent modern physical chemistry course that should inspire us to rethink our curriculum.”*

-Journal of Chemical Education

*“It is a superb book, to be greatly appreciated and treasured by generations of students to come. My congratulations to the authors for a task so well executed. All of us who labor to teach the dreaded P. Chem. course are in your debt.”*

-Richard Zare, Stanford University

*“McQuarrie and Simon approach physical chemistry in a fashion different from most other books. The approach is pedagogically pleasing, as it builds up physical chemistry from considerations of atoms to systems containing numerous molecules.”*

-Choice

*“It is beautifully produced, with clear diagrams and nice touches, such as the short biographies of scientists that appear between chapters…(McQuarrie and Simon) set high standards and many of us, as teachers and professionals in physical chemistry, will find inspiration in, and have our aspirations raised by, this text.”*

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-Benjamin Goldstein, a chemistry major at Princeton University

*“A true double thumbs up! Throughout my entire undergraduate study, both thermodynamic and reaction kinetics were conducted in a very classical manner. Whereas most of the advanced courses, thermo. and reaction kinetics, conducted here in CMU are basically dealing with all kinds of microscopic phenomena. Your book has served as a very good platform to link up my previous experiences with my current study.”*

-Lim Jit Kang, a Graduate Student at Carnegie Mellon University