Astrophysics of Gaseous Nebulae and Active Galactic Nuclei, Second Edition
Thoroughly revised, expanded and updated throughout, this new edition of Astrophysics of Gaseous Nebulae and Active Galactic Nuclei is a graduate-level text and reference book on gaseous nebulae, nova and supernova remnants, and the emission-line regions in Seyfert galaxies, radio galaxies, quasars, and other types of active galactic nuclei.
Thoroughly revised, expanded and updated throughout, this new edition of Astrophysics of Gaseous Nebulae and Active Galactic Nuclei is a graduate-level text and reference book on gaseous nebulae, nova and supernova remnants, and the emission-line regions in Seyfert galaxies, radio galaxies, quasars, and other types of active galactic nuclei. Much of the new data and many of the new images are from the Hubble Space Telescope and some of the largest ground-based telescopes in the world. Two wholly new chapters have been added, one on infrared astronomy and the other on X-ray astronomy, reflecting the great advances in these fields. This new edition also contains two completely new appendices, one a long primer on the quantum-mechanical concepts used in the analysis of nebular emission-line spectra, and the other a briefer description of molecular spectra. Large amounts of new data on dust in nebulae and quasars, and the photo-dissociated regions containing neutral atoms, molecules, and dust within and around them, have also been added to the book. Thus, the previous edition of this classic text, which has been tried, tested, and widely used for thirty years, has now been succeeded by a new, revised, updated, larger edition, which will be valuable to anyone seriously interested in astrophysics.
This book is a revised, updated, and expanded edition of Astrophysics of Gaseous Nebulae and Active Galactic Nuclei (1989) by one of us (D. E. O.), and that book was based in turn on an earlier volume, Astrophysics of Gaseous Nebulae (W. H. Freeman, 1974) by the same author. Over the thirty years between the publication of that first book and the completion of the manuscript of the present one the subject of ionized-gas astrophysics has grown phenomenally. Astronomers have long studied gaseous nebulae, and the cooler, less intrinsically luminous dust and molecular clouds associated with them, for their intrinsic interest. In addition, stars are almost completely opaque, and it is impossible to observe their interiors directly, or to measure their internal temperatures, pressures, densities or abundances of the elements within them except by indirect methods. Many nebulae, on the other hand, are relatively transparent, and we can measure these quantities directly.
Since Walter Baade’s discovery of the two stellar populations, which turned out to be young stars and old, and the working out of the main nuclear reaction chains that release energy on stars by Hans Bethe, C.F. von Weizsäcker and others, we have begun to understand the way in which most stars evolve. Much remains to be filled in, both observationally and theoretically, and we have learned how to trace star formation and evolution not only from stars themselves, but from their effect on the gas around them as well. We can estimate or measure the star formation rate not only with nebulae in our Galaxy, but throughout distant galaxies in the universe, from emission lines emitted in nebulae, clouds, associations and spiral arms in galaxies, and even from entire galaxies.
Interpreting the measurements is not straightforward; the path between is through “nebular astrophysics”, as explained in this book. Likewise we can measure abundances of the elements in all these objects with the same basic tools. We can directly observe, in some planetary nebulae and supernova remnants, the changed abundances of the elements that resulted within the stars themselves, leading to slow mass loss, shells thrown off from the star, or thermonuclear reactions at the surfaces of highly evolved stars.
Active galactic nuclei and their close relatives, quasars and other types of quasistellar objects, are a field of research only forty years old, which has grown explosively. Almost all we know about them came from study of their spectra, and especially their emission-line spectra, very similar to but not identical with those of gaseous nebulae. Maarten Schmidt, J. Beverly Ole, and Jesse L Greenstein’s giant leap in understanding the basic nature of 3C 273 and 3C 48 depended on their knowledge of nebular emission lines, and the subsequent study of all these objects has paralleled the study of gaseous nebulae.
Cosmology has advanced tremendously in the past decade or two, based on the availability of new, very large telescopes, either on high mountains like Keck I and II on Mauna Kea, Hawaii and the VLT on Paranal, Chile, or in space, like the Hubble Space Telescope, and their fast, digital imaging systems and spectrometers. All the most distant objects we know have been identified and measured by their “nebular” emission lines emitted within them, from H I La to [O II] l3727, [O III] ll4959, 5007 and Ha. How can we be sure it is one of these lines that an astronomer has observed? If it was, what other lines should be seen? If they are not seen, should that purported identification be rejected? If the identification is correct, what physical information (besides redshift and hence distance and look-back time) can be drawn from it? These are some of the questions which nebular astrophysics can help to answer.
In all these subjects, going beyond simply using a formula or canned interpretation from a previously published paper, is a necessity, in our opinion. We have tried to explain and illustrate the methods used, but also to express reasonable doubts about some far-reaching conclusions drawn from minimal data, without examining possible alternative interpretation. In the final chapter of the book we have outlined several questions about active galactic nuclei which shall await full explanations. The methods of the book will be useful in deciding the answers, we feel certain.
The fundamental outline and style of exposition of Astrophysics of Gaseous Nebula and Active Galactic Nuclei, often referred to as (AGN)2, has been preserved in this new edition, but we have carefully gone through every chapter, weeding out the old and including many new results, measurements, and ideas. Each chapter was completely rewritten, and then revised several lines. Furthermore, since its publication of the first edition, results from two fast-developing observational techniques, infrared astronomy and X-ray astronomy, have multiplied many fold. Hence we not only updated the material in these two fields for this edition, which we call AGN3, but have added much more new material, so it now includes two more chapters, one on each of these topics. In both these chapters, and in the rest of the book as well, we have emphasized the continuity of the physical ideas across the boundaries of “spectral regions” and the importance of observing and analyzing data over as wide a range of wavelengths as possible.
From comments of many recent students and current researchers who are using (AGN)2, we are aware that beginning graduate students of astrophysics today generally know much more about applications of quantum mechanics to nuclear physics than the previous generation, but much less about its applications to atomic spectroscopy, so necessary in nebular astrophysics. Hence we have added a completely new, 24 page appendix on “nebular quantum mechanics”, and also a shorter one on “molecular quantum mechanics” (which neither generation of astrophysics graduate students know very well) to help bring them in to the fold.
Most of the figures are new, based on recent published measurements and interpretations, and on images obtained with the most advanced telescopes and detecting systems of today. We are grateful to many colleagues who made them available to is gave us permission to use them in AGN3.
All the chapters, after the first five, which deal with basic material, have been reviewed for us by colleagues and friends who are active research experts in the various fields. We are most grateful to the following for their efforts on our behalf, who either contributed material or reviewed chapters: Jack Baldwin, John Bally, Robert Bauman, Mark Bottorff, Eugene Capriotti, John Danziger, Kris Davidson, Reginald Dufour, Robert Fesen, Donald Garnett, William Henney, Richard B. Henry, Luis Ho, Roberta Humphries, George Jacoby, Sveneric Johansson, Steven Kahn, Kirk Korista, Steven Kraemer, Karen Kwitter, Sun Kwok, Xiaowei Liu, John Mathis, Jon Morse, C. Robert O’Dell, Manuel Peimbert, Richard Shaw, Gregory Shields, Joseph Shields, Lewis Snyder, Phillip Stancil, Barry Turner, Sidney van den Bergh, Peter van Hoof, Sylvain Veilleux, Nolan Walborn, Joseph Weingartner, Robin Williams, Robert E. Williams, Mark Wolfire, and Stan Woosley. We also are extremely grateful to Nick Abel who carefully read the entire manuscript. We thank Jeffrey Mallory and John Rickard for help in producing the final manuscript. Any errors which may remain are our responsibly, not theirs.
Preface to the First Edition
Fifteen years ago I sent to the publisher my book on Astrophysics of Gaseous Nebulae. It was a graduate-level text and research monograph that evidently filled a need, for it soon became widely used and quoted. Over the years since then the book has found increasing use, not only in nebular research, but also in problems connected with quasars, Seyfert galaxies, quasistellar objects, and all the other fascinating types of active galactic nuclei whose emission-line spectra are similar, in general terms, to those of gaseous nebulae. My own research had turned in those directions since I came to Lick Observatory in 1973 and began obtaining data with its superbly instrumented 3-m Shane reflecting telescope, as it now is named.
Hence as AGN (for so my first book is often referred to) gradually became dated, particularly in its tables of observational results and theoretical calculations, it was natural for me to think of revising it, and of extending it to Astrophysics of Gaseous Nebulae and Active Galactic Nuclei at the same time. Many of my friends and colleagues urged me to do so. Thus the present (AGN)2 came about.
Like the earlier AGN, it is both a graduate-level text and an introduction to nebular and AGN research. The first nine chapters are based upon the first nine chapters of the earlier book, but have been heavily revised and updated. The last three chapters are completely new, one on nova and supernova remnants, and the final two chapters on active galactic nuclei. The emphasis is very strongly on the ionized gas in AGNs and the emission-line spectra they emit; their X-ray and radio-frequency radiations are only briefly mentioned.
The book is based upon graduate courses that I have given often at the University of California, Santa Cruz. It represents the material I consider necessary to understand research papers that are now being published in its fields. So much is known today, and so many new results are pouring out, that it is probably impossible to go straight from studying any book to doing frontier research oneself. But I believe that this book will enable the reader to get up to speed, so that he or she will be able to read and understand current research, and then begin to add to it.
The reader for whom (AGN)2 was written is assumed to have a reasonably good preparation in physics, and some knowledge of astronomy and astrophysics. The simplest concepts of radiative transfer are used without explanation, since the reader almost invariably has studied stellar atmospheres before gaseous nebulae and active galactic nuclei. Physical parameters, such as collision cross sections, transition probabilities, and energy levels, are taken as known quantities; no attempt is made to derive them. When I teach this material I usually include some of these derivations, linking them to the quantum-mechanics textbooks with which the students are most familiar. Omitting this material from the book left room to include more interpretation and results on gaseous nebulae and active galactic nuclei.
References are given at the end of each chapter, in a separate section. They are not inserted in the text, partly so that they will not break up the continuity of the discussions, and partly because the text is a complicated amalgam of many papers, with no obvious single place at which to refer to many of them. Almost all the references are to the American, English, and European astronomical literature, with which I am most familiar; it is also the literature that will be most accessible to the readers of this book.
I would like to express my deep gratitude to my teachers at the University of Chicago, who introduced me to the study of gaseous nebulae: Thornton L. Page, S. Chandrasekhar, W. W. Morgan, and the late Bengt Strömgren. I am also very grateful to my colleagues and mentors at the Mount Wilson and Palomar Observatories, as it was then named, the late Walter Baade and the late Rudolph Minkowski, who encouraged me to apply what I knew of nebular astrophysics to the study of galaxies. I owe much to all these men, and I am grateful to them all for their continued encouragement, support, and stimulation.
I am extremely grateful to my colleagues and friends who read early drafts of various chapters in this book and sent me their suggestions, comments, and criticisms on them: Donald P. Cox, Gary J. Ferland, William G. Mathews, John S. Mathis, Manuel Peimbert, Richard A. Shaw, Gregory A. Shields, Sidney van den Bergh, Robert E. Williams, and Stanford E. Woosley. In addition, my two current graduate students, Richard W. Pogge and Sylvain Veilleux, carefully read the entire manuscript; their comments and corrections greatly improved it, as did those of Dieter Hartmann and Philip A. Pinto, both of whom carefully read the supernova material. I am most grateful to them all.
Though these readers found many misprints and errors, corrected many misstatements, and clarified many obscurities, the ultimate responsibility for the book is mine. I have tried very hard to find and remove all the errors, but some must surely remain, to be discovered only after publication. I can do no better than repeat once again the words of a great physicist, Richard P. Feynman, “Listen to what I mean, not to what I say.” If the reader finds an error, I am sorry I did not catch it, but he or she will have proved his or her real understanding of the material, and I shall be very pleased to receive a correction.
I am greatly indebted to Gerri McLellan, who entered on the word processor the first drafts of all the chapters, and all the successive revisions of the manuscript, and to Pat Shand, who made the final editorial revisions and prepared the camera-ready copy for publication. I deeply appreciate the skill, accuracy, and dedication with which they worked on this book. I am also most grateful to my wife, Irene H. Osterbrock, who prepared the index for the book.
My research on gaseous nebulae and active galactic nuclei has been supported over the past fifteen years by the University of California, the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation, the University of Minnesota, the University of Chicago, the Institute for Advanced Study, the Ohio State University, and especially by the National Science Foundation. I am grateful to all of these organizations for their generous support. Much of my own research, and of the research of the graduate students and postdocs who have worked and are working with me, has gone into this book; I could never have written it without doing that research myself.
I am especially grateful to my friends George H. Herbig, Paul W. Hodge, Guido Munch, and Robert E. Williams, who provided original photographs included in this book. I am grateful to them and also to Palomar Observatory, Lick Observatory, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatories for permission to use the photographs (which are all credited individually) in this book. Publication of the photographs from NOAO does not imply the endorsement by NOAO, or by any NOAO employee, of this book! Many of the other figures are derived from published papers, and I am grateful to their authors for permission to modify and use their figures in this book.
Lastly, I wish to express my sincere thanks to my friends Bruce Armbruster, president of University Science Books, and Joseph S. Miller, my colleague, former student, and astronomy co-editor with me for USB, both of whom encouraged me time after time to go on with revising AGN and writing the additional new chapters for (AGN)2. Bruce was the astronomy editor for W. H. Freeman and Company when I wrote the earlier book, and he helped me greatly with it then, as he has helped me with (AGN)2 now. It was a great pleasure for me to work with him on both these books. I am also grateful to W. H. Freeman and Company for releasing me from my obligation to them, and allowing me to publish this book with USB.
Table of Contents
Preface to First Edition xvi
1 General Introduction 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Gaseous Nebulae 1
1.3 Observational Material 4
1.4 Physical Ideas 10
1.5 Diffuse Nebulae 12
1.6 Planetary Nebulae 14
1.7 Nova and Supernova Remnants 16
1.8 Active Galactic Nucl ei 17
1.9 Star Formation in Galaxies 18
2 Photoionization Equilibrium 29
2.1 Introduction 29
2.2 Photoionization and Recombination of Hydrogen 32
2.3 Photoionization of a Pure Hydrogen Nebula 35
2.4 Photoionization of a Nebula Containing Hydrogen and Helium 40
2.5 Photoionization of He+ to He++ 47
2.6 Further Iterations of the Ionization Structure 49
2.7 Photoionization of Heavy Elements 50
3 Thermal Equilibrium 79
3.1 Introduction 79
3.2 Energy Input by Photoionization 80
3.3 Energy Loss by Recombination 81
3.4 Energy Loss by Free-Free Radiation 84
3.5 Energy Loss by Collisionally Excited Line Radiation 84
3.6 Energy Loss by Collisionally Excited Line Radiation of H 90
3.7 Resulting Thermal Equilibrium 91
4 Calculation of Emitted Spectrum 118
4.1 Introduction 118
4.2 Optical Recombination Lines 120
4.3 Optical Continuum Radiation 131
4.4 Radio-Frequency Continuum and Line Radiation 136
4.5 Radiative Transfer Effects in H I 142
4.6 Radiative Transfer Effects in He I 150
4.7 The Bowen Resonance-Fluorescence Mechanisms for O III and O I 152
4.8 Collisional Excitation in He I 154
5 Comparison of Theory with Observations 192
5.1 Introduction 192
5.2 Temperature Measurements from Emission Lines 194
5.3 Temperature Determinations from Optical Continuum Measurements 200
5.4 Temperature Determinations from Radio-Continuum Measurements 203
5.5 Temperature Determinations from Radio & UV Absorption Lines 207
5.6 Electron Densities from Emission Lines 210
5.7 Electron Temperatures and Densities from Infrared Emission Lines 215
5.8 Electron Temperatures and Densities from Radio Recombination Lines 216
5.9 Filling and Covering Factors 223
5.10 Ionizing Radiation from Stars 226
5.11 Abundances of the Elements in Nebulae 235
5.12 Calculations of the Structure of Model Nebulae 245
6 Internal Dynamics of Gaseous Nebulae 283
6.1 Introduction 283
6.2 Hydrodynamic Equations of Motion 284
6.3 Free Expansion into a Vacuum 289
6.4 Shocks 291
6.5 Ionization Fronts and Expanding H+ Regions 295
6.6 Magnetic Fields 301
6.7 Stellar Winds 303
7 Interstellar Dust 316
7.1 Introduction 316
7.2 Interstellar Extinction 316
7.3 Dust within H II Regions 325
7.4 Infrared Thermal Emission 331
7.5 Formation and Destruction of Dust Particles 337
7.6 Grain Opacities 339
7.7 Effects of Grains on Surrounding Gas 341
7.8 Dynamical Effects of Dust in Nebulae 345
8 Infrared Radiation and Molecules 371
8.1 Introduction 371
8.2 The Structure of a PDR 372
8.3 The H2 Molecule 376
8.4 The CO Molecule 381
8.5 Comparison with Observations: 385
8.6 Molecules around H II Regions 389
9 H II Regions in the Galactic Context 404
9.1 Introduction 404
9.2 Distribution of H II Regions in Other Galaxies 404
9.3 Distribution of H II Regions in Our Galaxy 406
9.4 Stars in H II Regions 410
9.5 Abundances of the Elements 413
9.6 Newly Formed Stars in H II Regions 424
9.7 Starburst Galaxies 427
10 Planetary Nebulae 445
10.1 Introduction 445
10.2 Distance Determinations 445
10.3 Space Distribution and Kinematics of Planetary Nebulae 451
10.4 The Origin of Planetary Nebulae and the Evolution of Their Central Stars 453
10.5 The Expansion of Planetary Nebulae 461
10.6 Morphology and Composition 463
10.7 Planetary Nebulae with Extreme Abundances of the Elements 468
10.8 Molecules in Planetary Nebulae 470
10.9 Mass Return from Planetary Nebulae 474
10.10 Planetary Nebulae in Other Galaxies 476
11 Heavy Elements and High-Energy Effects 502
11.1 Introduction 502
11.2 Physical Processes Involving Bound Electrons 502
11.3 Physical Processes at Still Higher Energies 508
11.4 Physical Conditions from X-ray Spectroscopy 513
11.5 Collisional Excitation of H0 518
12 Nova and Supernova Remnants 537
12.1 Introduction 537
12.2 Nova Shells 537
12.3 The Crab Nebula 546
12.4 The Cygnus Loop 553
12.5 Cas A 559
12.6 Other Supernova Remnants 562
12.7 Spectroscopic Differences between Shock-Heated and Photoionized Regions 564
12.8 h Car 566
13 Active Galactic Nuclei – Diagnostics and Physics 595
13.1 Introduction 595
13.2 Historical Sketch 597
13.3 Observational Classification of AGNs 601
13.4 Densities and Temperatures in the Narrow-Line Gas 608
13.5 Photoionization 613
13.6 Broad-Line Region 621
14 Active Galactic Nuclei – Results 648
14.1 Introduction 648
14.2 Energy Source 649
14.3 Narrow-Line Region 653
14.4 LINERs 659
14.5 Broad-Line Region 663
14.6 Dust in AGNs 672
14.7 Internal Velocity Field 676
14.8 Physical Picture 685
Appendix 1 Measures of Light 725
A1.1 Specific Intensity I 725
A1.2 Flux F 726
A1.3 Mean Intensity J 727
A1.4 Energy Density and Radiation Pressure 727
A1.5 Emittance 728
A1.6 Surface Brightness S 729
A1.7 Emissivity and Observed Quantities 729
Appendix 2: Milne Relation Between Capture and Photoionization Cross Sections 733
Appendix 3 Emission Lines of Neutral Atoms 736
Appendix 4 Nebular Quantum Mechanics 740
Appendix 5 Atomic Data for Heavy Element Ionization Balance 769
Appendix 6 Quantum Mechanics of Molecules 788
Glossary of Physical Symbols 796
Glossary of Acronyms 815
“This new edition of AGN2 is impressive for the breadth of processes and objects that it covers. Full of physical insight, it remains the definitive reference for understanding every type of emission-line object. I keep a copy on my desk at all times.”
-Robert Williams, Space Telescope Science Institute
“This is a much-needed update to the classic work by Osterbrock with the same title, one of the most heavily used and cited in all of astrophysics. It states physical principles very clearly and shows their applications to many types of astronomical objects. Important developments since the previous volume, especially in infrared and X-ray astronomy, have been added.”
-John S. Mathis, University of Wisconsin-Madison